Old and New NS-Axis of Iceland

The North Volcanic Zone of Iceland is clearly aligned from north to south. But Iceland has another axis like that, farther to the west. The two different axis or lines are of the same nature. Actually, the North Volcanic Zone did replace the Skagafjordur Volcanic Zone. Therefore, the distance between the two axis is exactly 3° from east to west, because both axis have their roots in the convection rolls pattern.

The two NS-axis of Iceland – old and new

The western axis is older, and contains the central polygon of the Icelandic Plateau, where the distance to the edge of the elliptically shaped plateau is the same to the east and west. As shown in other posts, that axis is also centrally located between the main outposts of Icelandic volcanoes, Snæfellsjökull and Snæfell.

We get a geological/geographical bonus by seeing how the glacier Vatnajökull is shaped by the convection rolls framework, as one polygon is colored almost completely white. The other parts of the glacier seem to reach out from that central area. Similar features can also be clearly found for Langjökull, covering the western half of its polygon.


Small Volcanic Zones of Iceland

Usually, we mention the large volcanic rift zones extending over central Iceland. But the small volcanic zones deserve attention as well. According to this model, they have one thing in common, that is they extend over a pair of convection rolls. Here, the zones and belts are marked centrally with a black line.

The smaller volcanic zones and belts of Iceland.

Grímsey Oblique Rift Zone is least known and hardly mentioned in overview material about the geology of Iceland. It connects the North Volcanic Zone with the Kolbeinsey Ridge. It has a similar function as Reykjanes Oblique Rift Zone, providing a connection with the Reykjanes Ridge. Apart from those two systems, there are three other marginal systems. First is Snaefellsnes Volcanic Belt, found in the West of Iceland and it seems to be hard to explain why it exists at all. In the East, Öraefajökull Volcanic Belt is also hard to explain, although it is usually said that it represents a new development as volcanic activity gradually moves eastwards. Finally, the South Iceland Volcanic Belt is not always regarded as an independent area, as it connects directly with the East Volcanic Zone.

All those zones and belts should be analyzed according to the effect of the relevant pair of convection rolls and how coupling between layers will affect their development. One more volcanic zone could be mentioned in this context, that of Hofsjökull. It is small and behaves in a different way than the West, East and North Volcanic Zones.


A Story about the Coherence between Iceland’s different Parts

The NW of Iceland has the same shape as the North and East. Do yo believe that? Of course not! All right then. Some things have to be explained step by step.

The geologically oldest parts of Iceland. Map fromIcelandic Institute of Natural History.

First, I point out three different parts of consideration. I will compare the northern and eastern parts, with the NW part.

A line drawn along the East coast of Iceland.

The East is a rather distinct area, characterized by fjords, surrounded with mountains. Once having the line drawn, we can duplicate it and past it on the NW peninsula.

The East coast of Iceland compared with the East coast of the NW peninsula

This is an interesting story. This ‘fit’ is not easy to get, it follows the curvature of the entire coastline and quite a lot of details enhance the match. Besides that, turning anti-clockwise 45° is not that random. These areas are often compared, because they have similar age geologically. Some might say that the line is thick, so it hides the differences. I anticipate that, and to be able to continue with the story, a map with a thin line is added. Sure, there are tiny differences, so tiny that they have to be searched out with some difficulty. So I have to find someone who wants to say: ‘During 10 million years, the factors shaping these two sides of the country should have formed the areas differently’. I totally agree, but the word should is not that scientific. I have facts here to deal with. So I keep on with the story with a big smile, just like no one ever thought of interrupting me 🙂

The North coast of Iceland marked with a line.

Now another geologically old part of Iceland is examined. We draw a line along the coast of the central North. The main peninsula is called Tröllaskagi (The Troll Peninsula), because of its rugged appearence. The Eyjafjörður area is also included, as it the bedrock there is of similar age.

The North compared with the NW peninsula.

Now the line along the North is copied and rotated anti-clockwise 30°. It fits amazingly well with the NW coast of the NW peninsula. Why is that? Again, a thinner line is used for detailed comparison. The northernmost part has a larger small peninsula, but generally the topography is shaped in similar way. The large scale fjords of Eyjafjörður and Ísafjarðardjúp fit surprisingly together. After that, the central peninsula of the large scale NW peninsula fit with the Tröllaskagi shape. The comparison ends with Skagafjörður and Arnarfjörður, because Skagafjörður was enlarged about 2-3 million years ago when a rift zone developed within it. It can therefore hardly be compared with its counterpart of the NW, Arnarfjörður, which has never underwent any rifting process.

The three areas of NW, N and E, compared.

As this blog has a bit longer text than usually, a wider comparison is made here at the end. The two areas of N and E have now been added to the NW peninsula. What do we then have? Actually, a superimposed drawing of the whole peninslula is emerging, like it has been duplicated! I can tell you why. These areas have emerged in the same way as the NW peninsula, and then drifted away from the volcanic zones to the present locations. Therefore, they have similar edges, with similar weaknesses, taking on similar forms when the glacier and ocean shape them through millions of years. As tectonic drift is not that random, subject to the regular forces of magma flow, the angular difference becomes regular as well. Rotation of 30° and 45° respectively, making a match, is far beyond any chances of coincidence.

So here we end this story of this long blog post about magic magma. There is much more to tell, as we ended the comparison mentioning the Skagafjörður Rift Zone, altering the north coast of Iceland. There is also a ‘tiny’ piece of old rock in the middle of the West of Iceland (Borgarfjörður). Does that one also match with a part of the NW peninslula? There are so many questions to ask about this subject. So, please relax. These were just a few facts pointed out to everyone, put into the form of a story, so you are not required to either believe or deny anything 🙂


The Symmetry of Southern Africa

Our Earth looks beautiful seen from space, and one reason is the symmetry of continents and oceans. Africa is the best example, as the southern half of it is explicitly picturesque. It is no coincidence, as is shown here below.

The symmetry of Africa.

The lines make it already a little bit easier to appreciate the symmetry. Taking the mantle currents into account, we get this drawing showing the basic situation:

The symmetry of Africa compared with convection rolls division lines.

This shows the main lines of the position of Africa compared with the mantle currents. A north-south axis forms in between the two ridges of the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean, being roughly 60° apart at these latitudes. This location over downwelling (blue) lower mantle division line is making the continent relatively stationary during this geological era. Upwelling lines of lower mantle are marked with red.


The World Pattern

The world has a distinct pattern, as shown below. This is due to the effect of mantle currents.

The World Pattern.

Apart from the 30° steps along equator, the convection rolls pattern explains the volcanic activity of Hawaii, Japan and Iceland.

Although obvious, the pattern has to be explained. The large scale convection rolls span 30° from east to west, and sway in an ‘S’-shaped way along the globe from north to south. Besides that, the magma circulates, not only within each section of the relevant convection roll, but also horizontally around the globe. To put it simple: If not, the system would not work.

The points selected here with arrow all need special attention. How did the Bering Strait open up? How does the volcanic activity of Hawaii work? The answer is that Hawaii is located over the division line of two large scale convection rolls. The East Pacific main ridge is close to the point pointed out with the arrow here, but there is a smaller ‘side ridge’ at the division point between large scale convection rolls. The west coast of S-America is a prominent point, with a huge trench. Then the Amazon delta is also one of the most decisive equatorial points of the convection rolls system of the Earth. The long stretch of Mid-Atlantic Ridge along equator has of course a point at the center of the ocean, pointed out here. Then, 30° farther eastwards is the west coast of Africa. Going 30° to the east from there, you will see the Great Rift Valley of Africa. Another 30° to the east, the Mid-Ocean Ridge of the Indian Ocean is found exactly where it should be according to this model. Going farther, namely 30° to the east, the west coast of Indonesia provides the base for the next point. Travelling 30° over Indonesia, you will reach the eastern coast. To explore the next division line between convection rolls, it is best to see Japan, actually Mt. Fuji, the most famous volcano of Japan. To further convince oneself of the sensibility of this system, we should have a look at Greenland, Iceland and Norway, providing a pattern over the North Atlantic. The model of the world is so inaccurate that the details cannot be detected, but luckily, I have worked them out also. It is always possible to ‘zoom in’ on each location to analyze in detail what really happens there, when doing so, the interaction between different layers of the mantle can be considered, and you will feel everything starts making more and more sense.

Because how obvious this is, everyone can accept the idea that large scale convection rolls shape the world. As can be seen in other posts, there are countless examples of the tiny details which can be explained with this model.