The most powerful low temperature area in Iceland

In Borgarfjörður the area around Reykholt provides naturally about 400 liters per second of boiling hot water. The Reykjanes Ridge line to NE and the NW line of Hekla intersect there and create these extraordinary conditions.

Study area of Reykholt
Reykholtsdalur with the lines drawn

The valleys are oriented E-W due to the outer pressure on the polygon. A cube of mainly ductile material breaks from one corner to the other). The combination of side pressure and heat source creates a geothermal area.


The Borgarfjörður, Southern Lowlands and Eyjafjallajökull EW-axis

Along the 64th parallel over the Southen Lowlands area the fracture zone occationally causing large earthquakes is found. An older version is found in the Borgarfjörður area. An EW-axis is also found along Eyjafjallajökull and through the Katla caldera.

EW-axis in central areas of polygons

As the lines represent divisions between convection rolls, the coherence between these EW-axis and the convection rolls is amazing. Remember that Hekla and Hallarmúli are found at the eastern end points of the relevant axis. The large flows caused by Katla euruptions are originated from an opening on the east end, through which Kötlujökull slides out from the caldera.

So should we explain this, or can anyone realize why this is so? The polygons are subject to pressure and tension from nearby polygons and the mantle flow below. As they are mainly made of ductile material, they break in the middle from one corner to the other. It is pure physics.


Reykholt – a cultural and geological site

Reykholt is one of the most famous sites of Icelandic history. The location of Reykholt is at the intersection point of division lines between main convection rolls.

The convection rolls crossings at Reykholt in Iceland

One line creates the Reykjanes Ridge, a section of the Atlantic Ridge, the other line contributes directly to Katla, Hekla and Prestahnúkur. Where those lines meet, the famous geothermal area of Reykjadalur, including Reykholt and the most powerful hotspring of the world, Deildartunguhver, appear.

Snorri Sturluson lived there, wrote about history and mythology, besides that he most likely wrote Egils saga. His farm was heated with geothermal heat, making use of steam from nearby hotspring by letting it through pipes under the floor within the farm.


The equator plane of convection rolls

How can the convection rolls be derived and mapped? First, we can assume that hight and width is the same, second that horizontal radius is in harmony with Earth’s radius. This has been calculated, and drawn accurately. The result is a model, very useful for geologists and geoscience in general, something we should know about!

Equator plane of Earth – mantle rolls pattern

As the layers of Earth are drawn to scale, it is obvious that this convection rolls pattern fits perfectly into the layers. By deriving the system to the north and south, countless geological features can be explained thoroughly, hitherto not understood.


Kötlujökull and the flows from Katla volcano

Knowing about the mantle currents makes it possible for us to explain tectonics and topography. An EW-axis is found along Eyjafjallajökull through Fimmvörðuháls and farther to the east over the caldera of Katla. This is how it looks:

Try to look at Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull on Google Map yourself, and trace the EW-axis. The reason can be understood by referring to the pattern of magma currents under the tectonic plates of the Earth.


Hallarmúli with the same chemistry as Hekla – and originated from the same site according to measurements

Hallarmúli has similar composition as Hekla according to Haukur Jóhannsson and Kristján Sæmundsson (

In approximately 6 million years Hallarmúli has drifted this distance, according to the measured drift vectors

Hallarmúli is measured to be about 6 million years old, and with the velocity of close to 2 cm a year, it should have drifted this far away from Hekla. It is also in accordance with the direction of the vectors.

This is a proof that the drift vectors, measured with GPS technology in 2004 compared with 1993 point locations, show real drift direction and speed. Actually, the proof is double, because a fault zone is accompanied with the sites of Hekla and Hallarmúli as shown below:


The most famous Icelandic volcano – Eyjafjallajökull

In 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eurupted. Its location is interesting, as the crater is in the middle of a polygon. It is directly south of Hekla, which is in the north corner of the same polygon. The craters of Vatnafjöll and Tindfjöll are also on that line.

The elliptical form around the crater of Eyjafjallajökull, exactly in the middle of the polygon. Hekla marks the northern corner of the polygon.

Countless examples like this one show how the convection rolls shape the surface.