geology

Tahiti – calculated

cottages in the middle of beach
Photo by Julius Silver on Pexels.com

Tahiti is amazingly far away from any mainland. It can be compared with Hawaii, because it has a hot spot at Mehetia. The drift of the Pacific Plate creates a chain of islands. The calculated value of directions can be achieved in the same way as for Hawaii:

Tahiti 01

This is very close to the measured value of tectonic drift, that is N65°W.

The relevant convection rolls division line is found directly under Mehetia.

Here is the calculated value for Hawaii, for a quick comparison 🙂 Note that the calculations are double for Hawaii (NW and NE trending vectors), because the symmetric effect of the two convection rolls layers appears clearly.

Hawaii - 03

 

 

geology

Baffinsland and Iceland at the same latitudes – what do they have in common?

The south of Baffinsland is shaped in the same way as Iceland. Just compare these drawings:

Iceland and Southern Baffinsland

It is obvious that the main faults and coastlines follow the lines. It is also important that at 64°N, Baffinsland extends exactly 9° from coast to coast, or the width of 6 convection rolls. Just to clarify:

Iceland and Southern Baffinsland - second layer convection rolls only

In Iceland, at the same latitude as this part of Baffinsland, the upper most (first) layer is of course more apparently shaping the surface. Here is a map of Iceland (based on a map from Náttúrufræðistofnun), and the grid has exactly the same pattern as for Baffinsland:

Iceland division line

The numerous details can then by worked out by scrutinizing these maps.

 

geology

Greenland and Iceland – what do they have in common?

Comparing the west coast of Greenland with Iceland at the same latitudes reveals a common point. At 66°N the coasts are exactly 30° apart. As mentioned before, the basic extension along each latitude is 30°, because each convection roll is 30° wide.

Greenland and Iceland 30 at 66

Besides that, similar consistency is found between tectonics and analysis of convection rolls of the mantle in both countries.

This is how it looks:

Grænland - grind - 64 og 66

Just to have Iceland in similar scale to make comparison easier:

Iceland division line

There you see that the fjords of NW Iceland follow the equator originated set of lines to the NW, but in Greenland to the NE, but the deviation from east is actually the same, that is 35°.

geology

The mantle currents under Denmark

The distribution of Danish land can be explained according to the mantle currents.

This is a simplified convection rolls division lines drawing on a Google map base:

Jótland - Fjón - Sjáland - Skánn

This provides a base for analysis (if we are assured about the mantle convection system).

Therefore we can draw further by adding a few lines of reference:

Jótland - Fjón - Sjáland - 3

The main EW-axis goes right through Copenhagen, marked with a black line.

The easternmost point is also Copenhagen, and exactly 4.5° farther to the west is the west coast of Jutland. (Each convection roll extends 1.5° from east to west.)

This belt of Denmark is made up of three main polygons, one representing Jutland, one for the island Funen and one for the island Zealand, on which Copenhagen is located.

This provides a base for the geometry of Denmark.

 

geology

Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius – how are they connected?

The three most famous volcanoes of Italy are all in the vicinity of the same convection division line:

Etna 01

The volcanoes Vesuvius and Stromboli are directly above the line. The line represents a division between convection rolls found at about 250 km depth. The black line represents the division between convection rolls at about 120 km depth. the margins of other parallel convection rolls are marked with thinner lines.

This gives us the opportunity to think about the difference between Vesuvius and Etna. It is common knowledge that Etna is located at the border line where the African tectonic plate slides under the European one. The ascending mantle underneath can then send lava up through the crust resulting in eruptions.

Note that this analysis changes nothing about traditional geology. But it becomes easier to understand if the convection rolls under the tectonic plates are taken into account.

And just to emphasize that this is calculated, based on sophisticated analysis, let us compare directly with local vector.

Stromboli - Vesuvius

This is how these volcanoes are connected within the mantle. This is calculated in the same way as for the tectonics and location of volcanic and geothermal sites in Iceland.

geology

South America and Indonesia compared – subduction symmetry at equator calculated

It is fascinating that the main division points of equator are directly above the division points between convection rolls of lower mantle, which are 30° apart! But details also tell a story. Let us look at the subduction points, exactly 180° apart on equator. This can be easily checked on a Google map:

S-America and Indonesia Compared 01

The subduction zones have the same deviation from north on equator. This alignment of the red marks, exactly on equator, is the first derivation of convection cell alignment along with north-south pressure axis.

For S-America the point above large convection cells is within the trench. The relevant lines are down-welling at the point.  At Indonesia the point is 1.5° east of the trench opening.

Just to explain the relevant conditions, The sites are here marked on the convection cell model:

S-America and Indonesia Convection Model

All this is easily understood, once you have seen the basic pattern of convection rolls within the Eart’s mantle.

geology

Dettifoss, Hafragilsfoss and Selfoss – the continuation of Hekla!

Dettifoss is the most powerful waterfall of Europe. The settings can be described as such: The river Jökulsá á Fjöllum does flow northwards, as the north volcanic zone of Iceland is aligned north-south. The edge of the waterfall is aligned N34°E. Why?

According to this analysis, Dettifoss is on the same line as the volcano Hekla! Here you see the waterfall and the relevant rift:

20180622_103922

From above it looks like this on Google map:

Dettifoss - 01

Dettifoss

The calculated value of direction of mantle convection rolls is the the same as that of the edge of the waterfall. As Dettifoss is on the latitude of 65.8°N, the calculated value becomes 56° angle from EW-axis.

Note that in the south of Iceland the direction of the volcanic zones is calculated with this formula. In the north of Iceland the symmetry of the magma currents of different layers does lead the zone directly northwards, but the direction of upper most NE-trending convection rolls still appear with the tectonics of the area.

The manifestations of how the magma currents shape the surface are endless!

Just to show the amazing possibilities this gives us to understand the environment better, just have a look at the other two waterfalls in the area, Hafragilsfoss and Selfoss.

Hafragilsfoss - 01

Hafragilsfoss is directed in exactly the same way as Dettifoss. It is easy to understand as the main upwelling division line of convection rolls passes through this area and is exactly oriented in the same direction.

But underneath there is another layer of convection rolls with opposite orientation. The next waterfall above Dettifoss is Selfoss, and the alignment of its edge can also be calculated!

Selfoss fyrir ofan Dettifoss- 01

It is all the same formula showing us all this. These calculations can of course be utilized for many purposes once this method becomes common knowledge.


Just to clarify this further, the position is shown on the map from Náttúrufræðistofnun and Orkustofnun.

Dettifoss - staðsetning

Being found along the continuation of the line of Hekla, with the correct alignment, it is a good example of how the convection cell system works.

Dettifoss - location - alignment compared with Hekla line

The ruling convection rolls division line extends from Hekla to the vicinity of the three waterfalls. Mathematics explain it all!