South America and Indonesia compared – subduction symmetry at equator calculated

It is fascinating that the main division points of equator are directly above the division points between convection rolls of lower mantle, which are 30° apart! But details also tell a story. Let us look at the subduction points, exactly 180° apart on equator. This can be easily checked on a Google map:

S-America and Indonesia Compared 01

The subduction zones have the same deviation from north on equator. This alignment of the red marks, exactly on equator, is the first derivation of convection cell alignment along with north-south pressure axis.

For S-America the point above large convection cells is within the trench. The relevant lines are down-welling at the point.  At Indonesia the point is 1.5° east of the trench opening.

Just to explain the relevant conditions, The sites are here marked on the convection cell model:

S-America and Indonesia Convection Model

All this is easily understood, once you have seen the basic pattern of convection rolls within the Eart’s mantle.


Dettifoss, Hafragilsfoss and Selfoss – the continuation of Hekla!

Dettifoss is the most powerful waterfall of Europe. The settings can be described as such: The river Jökulsá á Fjöllum does flow northwards, as the north volcanic zone of Iceland is aligned north-south. The edge of the waterfall is aligned N34°E. Why?

According to this analysis, Dettifoss is on the same line as the volcano Hekla! Here you see the waterfall and the relevant rift:


From above it looks like this on Google map:

Dettifoss - 01


The calculated value of direction of mantle convection rolls is the the same as that of the edge of the waterfall. As Dettifoss is on the latitude of 65.8°N, the calculated value becomes 56° angle from EW-axis.

Note that in the south of Iceland the direction of the volcanic zones is calculated with this formula. In the north of Iceland the symmetry of the magma currents of different layers does lead the zone directly northwards, but the direction of upper most NE-trending convection rolls still appear with the tectonics of the area.

The manifestations of how the magma currents shape the surface are endless!

Just to show the amazing possibilities this gives us to understand the environment better, just have a look at the other two waterfalls in the area, Hafragilsfoss and Selfoss.

Hafragilsfoss - 01

Hafragilsfoss is directed in exactly the same way as Dettifoss. It is easy to understand as the main upwelling division line of convection rolls passes through this area and is exactly oriented in the same direction.

But underneath there is another layer of convection rolls with opposite orientation. The next waterfall above Dettifoss is Selfoss, and the alignment of its edge can also be calculated!

Selfoss fyrir ofan Dettifoss- 01

It is all the same formula showing us all this. These calculations can of course be utilized for many purposes once this method becomes common knowledge.

Just to clarify this further, the position is shown on the map from Náttúrufræðistofnun and Orkustofnun.

Dettifoss - staðsetning

Being found along the continuation of the line of Hekla, with the correct alignment, it is a good example of how the convection cell system works.

Dettifoss - location - alignment compared with Hekla line

The ruling convection rolls division line extends from Hekla to the vicinity of the three waterfalls. Mathematics explain it all!




Equator – unbelievable! But the fact is that land and ocean floor are regularly distributed along the equator line!

The regular distribution of land mass and ocean floor along equator is divided 30° apart! It fits to the convection cells of the mantle underneath. Just look at this map:


This is one of the proofs of the existence of the convection cell system underneath.

The better we compare the system of convection cells and the distribution of land, ocean ridges and tectonics, the better it all fits! We have had this map on our walls for so long time! Do you want to go into the details of this distribution? Do you want to know the logic behind it?


Convection cells alignment compared with the Scandinavian Peninsula and Iceland

Norway shows remarkable similarity with the shape of convection rolls pattern.

The grid resulting from the relevant analysis looks like this:


With one basic formula, the main features of the Scandinavian Peninsula can be accounted for. One prediction of the theory is that identical latitudes frequently share parallel topographic features.

In northern latitudes (above 60.3°N), this formula is used:

β n = 90° – arc tan {[(35.342 – (ϕ – 96)2) 0.5  / (ϕ – 96)](1/cos ϕ)}

where β represents the direction, either as Nβ°W or Nβ°E of the convection rolls extending from the North Pole to the latitude of 60.3°N, and ϕ is the latitude.

According to the above formula, the direction is about N33°E, and it fits very well to the general trend of both coastlines at the same latitude as shown:



The direction can be detected even more clearly in the mountains of Norway where the valleys have the predicted orientation.

In addition, the fjords of Iceland, for instance Arnarfjörður, have the same orientatin as the side valleys of Scandinavian peninsula, extending between Norway and Sweden. The direction of these valleys can be calculated with the same formula for the convection rolls extending from equator:

β e = 90° – arc tan {[(35.342 – (ϕ – 32)2) 0.5  / (ϕ – 32)](1/cos ϕ)}

The calculation gives the value of about N55°W.

Therefore, when the direction β e is added to the maps, the resemblance becomes clear:



Same directions for Iceland and Scandinavian Peninsula, both for the fjords in Iceland and rivers in Sweden.

We can compare the convection rolls alignment at 60°N  with the Hardangerfjord system. The relevant vector is oriented N33°E, as shown here:


In turn, the E-W orientation of Sognefjord is inherent in the convection roll system everywhere because of the symmetrical form of the polygons resulting from the two uppermost layers below the crust.

There are many other similarities to be pointed out, and I often show people how the volcano Hekla has its counterpart in Norway, exactly 30° of longitude apart. I have already written another blog post about this. Considering that the convection cell system underneath is largely identical at those two places, it becomes easier to understand.




Trondheim area 30° of longitude from Hekla along 64°N.

This similarity is a surprise, but still expected according to this theory about the conditions prevalent within the mantle.


How are Iceland and Hawaii connected?

Iceland and Hawaii are often mentioned at the same time, because they are the two strongest hot spots in the world. In 1989, T. Neil Irvine of Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, noticed that Iceland and Hawaii are exactly 90° apart. It was a valid reason for him to make an analysis of the mantle currents within the Earth. He started by pointing out two sources of upwelling magma under Iceland and Hawaii, and the other locations forming a rectangular framework of 90° to each direction on the globe. I really appreciate this attempt, and the mathematical relation is a fact. But the convection cell system model here described is different from the one Neil Irvine made. Therefore, to understand why Iceland and Hawaii are 90° apart, the mathematical preconditions have to be derived in two steps, as the angle between the relevant convection rolls is 120°, and the hot spots Irvine referred to are close to different crossings of the convection cell system that lead to the intriguing angle of 90° compared with Earth’s center.

Here you can see the mathematical path of the six ascending division lines of the large convection cells of Earth’s lower mantle. The relationship is revealed to everyone by looking for less than one second!

Iceland and Hawaii

The relationship between Iceland and Hawaii above main horizontal division lines of large convection cells in Earth’s mantle.

To better understand this in 3D, the convection rolls equator plane is added here to se the vertical aspect. The rolls shown here as circular sections extend to north and south as shown above.

Iceland - Hawaii - Indonesia - lines