Norway shows remarkable similarity with the shape of convection rolls pattern.

The grid resulting from the relevant analysis looks like this:

With one basic formula, the main features of the Scandinavian Peninsula can be accounted for. One prediction of the theory is that identical latitudes frequently share parallel topographic features.

In northern latitudes (above 60.3°N), this formula is used:

β_{ n} = 90° – arc tan {[(35.34^{2} – (ϕ – 96)^{2})^{ 0.5} / (ϕ – 96)](1/cos ϕ)}

where β represents the direction, either as Nβ°W or Nβ°E of the convection rolls extending from the North Pole to the latitude of 60.3°N, and ϕ is the latitude.

According to the above formula, the direction is about N33°E, and it fits very well to the general trend of both coastlines at the same latitude as shown:

The direction can be detected even more clearly in the mountains of Norway where the valleys have the predicted orientation.

In addition, the fjords of Iceland, for instance Arnarfjörður, have the same orientatin as the side valleys of Scandinavian peninsula, extending between Norway and Sweden. The direction of these valleys can be calculated with the same formula for the convection rolls extending from equator:

β_{ e} = 90° – arc tan {[(35.34^{2} – (ϕ – 32)^{2})^{ 0.5} / (ϕ – 32)](1/cos ϕ)}

The calculation gives the value of about N55°W.

Therefore, when the direction β_{ e }is added to the maps, the resemblance becomes clear:

Same directions for Iceland and Scandinavian Peninsula, both for the fjords in Iceland and rivers in Sweden.

We can compare the convection rolls alignment at 60°N with the Hardangerfjord system. The relevant vector is oriented N33°E, as shown here:

In turn, the E-W orientation of Sognefjord is inherent in the convection roll system everywhere because of the symmetrical form of the polygons resulting from the two uppermost layers below the crust.

There are many other similarities to be pointed out, and I often show people how the volcano Hekla has its counterpart in Norway, exactly 30° of longitude apart. I have already written another blog post about this. Considering that the convection cell system underneath is largely identical at those two places, it becomes easier to understand.

Hekla

Trondheim area 30° of longitude from Hekla along 64°N.

This similarity is a surprise, but still expected according to this theory about the conditions prevalent within the mantle.

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## Published by Steingrimur Thorbjarnarson

I have a BS degree in geology and provide this website about my analysis of convection rolls in the Earth's mantle and how they affect the surface.
View all posts by Steingrimur Thorbjarnarson